Assessment of Seasonal Distribution and Characterisation of Geomagnetic Storm Occurrence during Solar Cycles 21–24


  • Moses Audu Department of Physics, Joseph Sarwuan Tarka University, P.M.B. 2373, Nigeria
  • Francisca Okeke Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nigeria, P.M.B. 410001, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
  • Tikyaa Emmanuel Department of Physics, Joseph Sarwuan Tarka University, P.M.B. 2373, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria
  • Jam Terkaa Department of Physics, Joseph Sarwuan Tarka University, P.M.B. 2373, Nigeria
  • Peter Onoja Department of Physics, Joseph Sarwuan Tarka University, P.M.B. 2373, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria
  • Inyope Thankgod Department of Physics, Joseph Sarwuan Tarka University, P.M.B. 2373, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria



Geomagnetic storm, Dst index, seasonal distribution, space weather, solar cycle


Geomagnetic storms (GMSs) are an important space weather phenomenon that poses serious threats to the advancement of space technology, power transmission lines, oil pipelines, and other infrastructure. This study investigates seasonal patterns of GMSs due to recent reports on the prominence of large storms (Dst ? -50 nT) during equinox conditions. Hourly Dst index data provided by the World Data Center, Kyoto, Japan, for solar cycles 21–24 (1976–2019) were employed. Storm occurrences in each solar cycle considered were identified using the minimum Dst value. The identified storms were categorized and analyzed statistically. Results revealed that storm occurrence varied from month to month, season to season, and solar cycle to solar cycle based on storm categories. Furthermore, the observed seasonal distribution of GMS occurrence decreases in the following order: autumn, spring, winter, and summer. This indicates that equinox conditions are more likely to have GMSs, consistent with the Russell-McPherron effect, compared to solstice conditions. The findings suggest that the distribution and characterization of storm occurrence vary seasonally due to solar activity. The insights on storm occurrence, distribution, and characterization may serve as a guide to space scientists to avert the impacts of GMSs while exploring space.


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How to Cite

Audu, M., Okeke, F., Emmanuel, T., Terkaa, J., Onoja, P., & Thankgod, I. (2024). Assessment of Seasonal Distribution and Characterisation of Geomagnetic Storm Occurrence during Solar Cycles 21–24. Indonesian Journal of Earth Sciences, 4(1), A1035.