Geophysical Subsurface Mapping Using the Electrical Resistivity Technique: A Comprehensive Study of the Petroleum Training Institute Main Campus in Effurun

Authors

  • Odunayo Tope Ojo Department of Physical Sciences (Geology Programme), Faculty of Natural Sciences, Redeemer's University, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria
  • Ike Joy Chiaka Department of Energy and Petroleum Studies, College of Natural Sciences, Novena University, Ogume, Delta State. Nigeria
  • Ameh Igoche Mark Department of Physical Sciences (Geology Programme), Faculty of Natural Sciences, Redeemer's University, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.52562/injoes.2024.846

Keywords:

Subsurface Geological Evaluation, Hydrogeological, Dipole-Dipole Analysis

Abstract

The electrical resistivity method was used to conduct a detailed examination of subsurface geology and hydrogeological parameters at the Petroleum Training Institute (PTI) Main Campus in Effurun, Nigeria. The research includes field data collecting, sounding curve interpretation, and dipole-dipole data processing. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were employed to gain a complete understanding of the hydrogeophysical features of the research area. The analysis revealed A and AK formations, which include four, five, and six-layer structures, highlighting the subsurface's intricacy. A frequency table was utilised to categorise the distribution of VES curves within the study area into three major groups. This classification was critical for characterising and comprehending the area's hydrogeological and geological complexity. Geo-electric sections were created to illustrate the different underlying layers, such as topsoil, clayey sand, sand, sandstone, and fracture. The study analyzed geoelectric properties and aquifer zones using resistivity isopach maps in 2D and 3D formats. The northeastern part of the study area had higher resistivity values, indicating geological variables affecting rock composition and groundwater supply. The findings are crucial for effective groundwater resource management, environmental assessments, and regional development planning. The geological model, combining data from dipole-dipole, geo-electric, and VES sections, accurately characterized subsurfaces in the PTI Campus area. The study identified six subsurface layers, providing baseline data for future infrastructure development. Recommendations include using advanced geophysical methods and a more detailed assessment of subsurface geology in the Warri region. This study adds to our understanding of the hydrogeological and geological aspects of the PTI Campus area, allowing us to make more informed judgements concerning environmental and infrastructure design. The study offers a comprehensive analysis of subsurface geology and hydrogeological parameters at PTI Main Campus, contributing valuable insights for groundwater management, environmental assessments, and regional development planning.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Abdelazim, R., & Rahman, S. S. (2016). Estimation of permeability of naturally fractured reservoirs by pressure transient analysis: An innovative reservoir characterization and flow simulation. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 145, 404–422. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2016.05.027

Adadzi, P., Allwright, A., & Fourie, F. (2022). Multivariate and Geostatistical Analyses of Groundwater Quality for Acid Rock Drainage at Waste Rock and Tailings Storage Site. Journal of Ecological Engineering, 23(12), 203–216. https://doi.org/10.12911/22998993/153091

Adebisi, G. A., Chowdhury, Z. Z., & Alaba, P. A. (2017). Equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic studies of lead ion and zinc ion adsorption from aqueous solution onto activated carbon prepared from palm oil mill effluent. Journal of Cleaner Production, 148, 958–968. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.02.047

Adeoti, L., Ojo, A. O., Adegbola, R. B., & Fasakin, O. O. (2016). Geoelectric assessment as an aid to geotechnical investigation at a proposed residential development site in Ilubirin, Lagos, Southwestern Nigeria. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 9(5), 338. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-016-2334-9

Aizebeokhai, A. P., Olayinka, A. I., & Singh, V. S. (2010). Application of 2D and 3D geoelectrical resistivity imaging for engineering site investigation in a crystalline basement terrain, southwestern Nigeria. Environmental Earth Sciences, 61(7), 1481–1492. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-010-0464-z

Akaolisa, C. C. Z., Ibeneche, W., Ibeneme, S., Agbasi, O., & Okechukwu, S. (2022). Enhance groundwater quality assessment using integrated vertical electrical sounding and physio-chemical analyses in Umuahia South, Nigeria. International Journal of Energy and Water Resources (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42108-022-00219-8

Akaolisa, C. C. Z., Oparah, J. C., & Agbasi, O. E. (2021). Geotechnical Characteristics of Benin Formation, Owerri Imo State, Nigeria. Brilliant Engineering, 3(2), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.36937/ben.2022.4569

Akpabio, G., Johnson, U., Cana, C. V., & Agbasi, O. (2017). Peat stratigraphy mapping using ground penetration radar and geotechnical engineering implications. International Journal of Advanced Geosciences, 5(2), 46. https://doi.org/10.14419/ijag.v5i2.7890

Akpoyibo, O., Anomohanran, O., & Ossai, C. (2023). Application of 2-D imaging survey for ascertaining the cause(s) of road failures along Sapele/Agbor road in Delta State, Nigeria. Scientia Africana, 21(3), 215–232. https://doi.org/10.4314/sa.v21i3.17

Amigun, J., Owolabi, S., & Adiat, K. (2012). Geophysical investigation at a proposed residential estate in Ibadan of Nigeria: Hydrological and geotechnical implication. Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences, 3, 368–373.

Arifianto, I., Wibowo, R. C., & Priana, M. R. F. (2019). An Accuracy Test of “Schlumberger” Vertical Electrical Sounding Method in a Sandbox Modelling. In EAGE-GSM 2nd Asia Pacific Meeting on Near Surface Geoscience and Engineering, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609.201900420

Azeem, M. W., Rehman, K., Rehman, N. U., Afrasiab, Farooq, U., & Arshad, A. (2021). Delineation of sinkhole in evaporite deposits using electrical resistivity survey: A case study of southern Kohat Plateau, Pakistan. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 14(4), 307. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-021-06663-w

Berrada, M., & Secco, R. A. (2022). Rho: Application to Analyze Electrical Resistivity. Journal of Open Research Software, 10, 10. https://doi.org/10.5334/jors.417

Calixto, W. P., Silva, C. L. B., Gomes, V. M., Reis, M. R. C., Silva Filho, A. M., Coimbra, A. P., & Wainer, G. A. (2022). Application of the Horizontal Soil Stratification and Lateral Profiling Methods for 3D Mapping of the Soil Electrical Resistivity. Energies, 15(6), 2067. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15062067

Cho, I.-K. (2020). Recent Trend in Electrical Resistivity Method. Journal of the Korean Society of Mineral and Energy Resources Engineers, 57(5), 506–526. https://doi.org/10.32390/ksmer.2020.57.5.506

Davies, R. J., Stewart, S. A., Cartwright, J. A., Lappin, M., & Underhill, J. R. (2004). 3D Seismic Technology: Application to the Exploration of Sedimentary Basins (Vol. 29). Geological Society of London. https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.MEM.2004.029.01.01

De La Varga, M., Schaaf, A., & Wellmann, F. (2019). GemPy 1.0: Open-source stochastic geological modeling and inversion. Geoscientific Model Development, 12(1), 1–32. https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-12-1-2019

Desherevskii, A. V., Modin, I. N., & Sidorin, A. Ya. (2019). Seasonal Variations in Specific Resistivity in the Upper Layers of the Earth Crust. Seismic Instruments, 55(3), 300–312. https://doi.org/10.3103/S0747923919030058

Ede, A. N. (2010). Building collapse in Nigeria: The trend of casualties in the last decade (2000-2010). International Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering, 10(6), 32–42.

Egbai, J., Efeya, P., & Iserhien-Emekeme, R. E. (2015). 2D Geoelectric Evaluation and Imaging of Aquifer Vulnerability of Dump Site at Ozoro Isoko South LGA of Delta State. Journal of Natural Sciences Research, 5, 1–11.

Falade, A., Oni, T., & Oso, O. (2022). Application of Electrical Resistivity Tomography In Engineering Site Characterization: A Case Study Of Igarra, Akoko Edo, Southwestern Nigeria. Malaysian Journal of Geosciences, 6(2), 84–87. https://doi.org/10.26480/mjg.02.2022.84.87

Folagbade, S. O. (2001). Case studies of building collapse in Nigeria. In Proceedings of a Workshop on Building Collapse, Causes, Prevention and Remedies, 24.

Gautier, M., Gautier, S., & Cattin, R. (2023). A new approach to quantify the reliability of Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) images [Other]. display. https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-12499

Ghosh, J. K., Bhanja, J., Purkayastha, S., Samanta, T., & Sengupta, S. (2002). A Statistical Approach to Geological Mapping. Mathematical Geology, 34(5), 505–528. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1016038710777

Gundes, S. (2022). Trends in Global Infrastructure Investment and Financial Consequences. European Journal of Sustainable Development, 11(1), 66. https://doi.org/10.14207/ejsd.2022.v11n1p66

Hussain, Y., Campos, J. E. G., Borges, W. R., Uagoda, R. E. S., Hamza, O., & Havenith, H.-B. (2022). Hydrogeophysical Characterization of Fractured Aquifers for Groundwater Exploration in the Federal District of Brazil. Applied Sciences, 12(5), 2509. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12052509

Islam, I., Ahmed, W., Rashid, M. U., Orakzai, A. U., & Ditta, A. (2020). Geophysical and geotechnical characterization of shallow subsurface soil: A case study of University of Peshawar and surrounding areas. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 13(18), 949. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-020-05947-x

Jayaram, V., & Zhao, T. (2022). Machine Learning-Aided Characterization Using Geophysical Data Modalities. In S. Mishra, Machine Learning Applications in Subsurface Energy Resource Management (1st ed., pp. 33–44). CRC Press. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781003207009-5

Lech, M., Skutnik, Z., Bajda, M., & Markowska-Lech, K. (2020). Applications of Electrical Resistivity Surveys in Solving Selected Geotechnical and Environmental Problems. Applied Sciences, 10(7), 2263. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072263

Okunowo, O. O., Adeogun, O. Y., Ishola, K. S., & Alli, S. (2020). Delineation of leachate at a dumpsite using geo-electrical resistivity method: A case study of Abule Egba, Lagos, Nigeria. SN Applied Sciences, 2(12), 2183. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-020-03573-6

Omowumi, F. P. (2014). Application of Electrical Resistivity in Buildings Foundation Investigation in Ibese Southwestern Nigeria. Asia Pacific Journal of Energy and Environment, 1(2), 95. https://doi.org/10.15590/apjee/2014/v1i2/53748

Osinowo, O. O., Akanji, A. O., & Akinmosin, A. (2011). Integrated geophysical and geotechnical investigation of the failed portion of a road in basement complex Terrain, Southwest Nigeria. Materials and Geoenvironment, 58(2), 143–162.

Ozegin, K. O., Oseghale, A. O., Audu, A. L., & Ofotokun. (2013). An application of the 2–D DC resistivity method in building site investigation—A case study: Southsouth Nigeria. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 3(2), 108–112.

Pawar, A., & Singh, V. (2022). Geotechnical Site Characterization-A Review. Journal of Geotechnical Studies, 7(2), 1–4. https://doi.org/10.46610/JoGS.2022.v07i02.001

Pham, D. N., Pham, K. N., Lai, P. H., Thi, N., & Duong, N. T., Pham, T. H., & Tran, T. D. (2022). 3D inversion of 2D electrical resistivity data for geotechnical analysis. Journal of Mining and Earth Sciences, 63(6), 45–52. https://doi.org/10.46326/JMES.2022.63(6).05

Selley, R. C., & Sonnenberg, S. A. (2023). The Subsurface Environment. In Elements of Petroleum Geology (pp. 167–205). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-822316-1.00004-5

Shamkhi, M. T., & Karim, H. H. (2022). Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) for Identifying Near-surface Bodies at Diyala University site, NE of Iraq. Iraqi Journal of Science, 5286–5294. https://doi.org/10.24996/ijs.2022.63.12.18

Sonawane, S. G., Saner, A. B., Desale, H. S., & Joshi, S. R. (2023). Application of Electrical Resistivity in Site Investigation at Ground Profile. In A. K. Agnihotri, K. R. Reddy, & H. S. Chore (Eds.), Proceedings of Indian Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering Conference (IGGEC) 2021, Vol. 1 (Vol. 280, pp. 73–82). Springer Nature Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-4739-1_7

Tchistiakov, A. A., Shvalyuk, E. V., & Kalugin, A. A. (2022). The rock typing of complex clastic formation by means of computed tomography and nuclear magnetic resonance. Georesursy, 24(4), 102–116. https://doi.org/10.18599/grs.2022.4.9

Terzaghi, K., Perk, R. B., & Mesri, G. (1996). Soil mechanics in engineering practice. John wiley & sons.

Wang, Y., Zhang, W., Qi, X., & Ching, J. (2022). Data analytics in geotechnical and geological engineering. Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards, 16(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.1080/17499518.2022.2038205

Yusuf, A., Haruna, H., Tabale, R. P., Mukkafa, S., & Kwami, I. A. (2022). Application of Electrical Resistivity Method in Evaluation of Aquifer Protective Capacity and Soil corrosivity: A Case Study of Wajari and Environs, Northeastern, Nigeria. BIMA Journal of Science and Technology (2536-6041), 6(03), 200–218. https://doi.org/10.56892/bima.v6i03.67

Zamanian, M., & Shahandashti, M. (2022). Investigation of Relationship between Geotechnical Parameters and Electrical Resistivity of Sandy Soils. In Construction Research Congress 2022 (pp. 686–695). https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784483978.070

Downloads

Published

2024-02-18

How to Cite

Ojo, O. T., Chiaka, I. J., & Mark, A. I. (2024). Geophysical Subsurface Mapping Using the Electrical Resistivity Technique: A Comprehensive Study of the Petroleum Training Institute Main Campus in Effurun. Indonesian Journal of Earth Sciences, 4(1), A846. https://doi.org/10.52562/injoes.2024.846