Heavy Metal Pollution Status in The Main Surface Waters of The N'djili River Basin in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: A Review with Application and Evaluation of Pollution Indices Evaluation

Authors

  • Daniel Nzomba wa Nzomba Institut National du Bâtiment et des Travaux Publics, Section Bâtiment et Travaux Publics, BP4731 Kinshasa - Ngaliema, RDC

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.52562/injoes.2024.965

Keywords:

Pollution indices, degree of contamination, trace metals, N'djili river watershed

Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess heavy metal pollution in the surface waters of the N'djili river watershed, as well as to determine the main sources of this pollution and their impact on water quality. Five sampling sites were selected in the watershed, representing a variety of urban and industrial influences. In these samples, trace metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. The respective mean concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) in the surface waters of the N'djili basin are 0.066 mg/L, 0.006 mg/L and 0.310 mg/L. The mean value of the degree of contamination (Dc) in the surface waters of the N'djili basin is greater than 3, indicating heavy contamination of these waters (Lukaya river, Matete river, N'djili river, Ntshuenge river, Ngwele river). The average values of for the trace metal pollution index (HPI) are below the threshold value of 100, so overall, these waters are not very polluted. Nevertheless, particularly high concentrations were observed in the waters of the Matete River, with values exceeding 100, indicating severe localized pollution. Correlation analysis between trace metals and HPI indicates that lead and cadmium are the main contributors to surface water toxicity in the N'djili basin. These results highlight the urgent need to develop targeted strategies to reduce pollution in order to preserve public health and aquatic ecosystems.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

AFNOR. (2008). NF T90-112-1986. Essais des eaux - Dosage de dix éléments métalliques (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, Pb) par spectrométrie d'absorption atomique dans la flamme - Méthode par dosage direct (NF T90- 112 Septembre 1986). Sandre code : 119. 1p. [NF T90-112-1986. Water tests - Determination of ten metallic elements (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, Pb) by atomic absorption spectrometry in the flame - Direct dosage method (NF T90 - September 112 1986). Zander code: 119. 1p.]

Akil, A., Hassan, T., Lahcen, B., Fatima E. H., & Abderrahim, L. (2014). Etude de la qualité physico-chimique et contamination métallique des eaux de surface du bassin versant de Guigou, Maroc [Study of the physico-chemical quality and metal contamination of surface water in the Guigou watershed, Morocco]. European Scientific Journal, 10(23), 84-94.

Al Obaidy, A. H. M. J., Maulood, B. K., & Kadhem, A. J. (2010). Evaluating Raw and Treated Water Quality of Tigris River within Baghdad by Index Analysis. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 2, 629-635. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jwarp.2010.27072

Al-Ani, R. R., Al Obaidy, A. H. M. J., & Badri, R. M. (2014). Assessment of water quality in the selected sites on the Tigris River, Baghdad-Iraq. International Journal of Advanced Research, 2(5), 1125-1131.

Al Obaidy, A. H. M. J., & Al-Khateeb, M. (2013). The challenges of water sustainability in Iraq. Engineering and Technology Journal, 31(5), 828-840. https://doi.org/10.30684/etj.31.5A3

Aloueimine, B. B., Kankou, M. O., & Belghyti, D. (2017). An indexing approach for the assessment of heavy metals in drinking water produced by Mauritanian water treatment plant. Scientific Study & Research: Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology, Food Industry, 18(3), 319-328.

Backman, B., Bodiš, D., Lahermo, P., Rapant, S., & Tarvainen, T. (1998). Application of a groundwater contamination index in Finland and Slovakia. Environmental Geology, 36, 55-64. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002540050320

Belghiti, M. L., Chahlaoui, A., Bengoumi, D., & El Moustaine, R. (2013). Etude de la qualité physico? chimique et bactériologique des eaux souterraines de la nappe plio-quaternaire dans la région de Meknès (Maroc) [Study of physical quality chemical and bacteriological of groundwater from the Plio-Quaternary aquifer in the Meknes region (Morocco)]. LARHYSS Journal, 10(3), 21-36.

Belkhiri, L., Tiri, A., & Mouni, L. (2018). Assessment of heavy metals contamination in groundwater: a case study of the south of Setif area, east Algeria. In Komatina, D. (2018). Achievements and challenges of integrated river basin management, 17-31. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.75734

Bipendu, M. N., Lukanda, M. V., Musibono, E. A. D., & Pwema, K. V. (2017). Effets de rejets industriels de l’usine de traitement d’eau de Kinshasa (REGIDESO) sur la qualité physico-chimique et biologique des eaux des rivières Matete et N’djili, RD Congo [Effects of industrial discharges from the Kinshasa water treatment plant (REGIDESO) on the physicochemical and biological water quality of the Matete and N'djili rivers, DR Congo]. International Journal of Innovation and Scientific Research, 29(2), 96-109.

Boland, J., Koomen, I., Lidth de Jeude, J. V., & Oudejans, J. (2004). Pesticides: compounds, use and hazards. Agromisa.

Djade, P. J. O., Traore, A., Koffi, K. J. T., keumean, K. N., Soro, G., & Soro, N. (2020). Assessment of pollution indices by metallic trace elements of groundwater resources in the mining area of the department of Zouan-Hounien, Côte d'Ivoire. Journal of Applied Biosciences, 150, 15457-15468.

Edet, A. E., & Offiong, O. E. (2002). Evaluation of water quality pollution indices for heavy metal contamination monitoring. A study case from Akpabuyo-Odukpani area, Lower Cross River Basin (southeastern Nigeria). GeoJournal, 57, 295-304. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:GEJO.0000007250.92458.de

El-Hamid, H. T. A., & Hegazy, T. A. (2017). Evaluation of water quality pollution indices for groundwater resources of New Damietta, Egypt. MOJ Ecology & Environmental Science, 2(6), 00045. http://dx.doi.org/10.15406/mojes.2017.02.00045

Giri, S., & Singh, A. K. (2019). Assessment of metal pollution in groundwater using a novel multivariate metal pollution index in the mining areas of the Singhbhum copper belt. Environmental Earth Sciences, 78(6), 192. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-019-8200-9

Goher, M. E., Hassan, A. M., Abdel-Moniem, I. A., Fahmy, A. H., & El-Sayed, S. M. (2014). Evaluation of surface water quality and heavy metal indices of Ismailia Canal, Nile River, Egypt. The Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 40(3), 225-233. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejar.2014.09.001

Hakanson, L. (1980). An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control. A sedimentological approach. Water Research, 14(8), 975-1001. https://doi.org/10.1016/0043-1354(80)90143-8

Haut Commissariat Aux Eaux et Forêt et la Lutte Contre la Désertification (HCEFLCD). (2006). Etude sur la pisciculture au barrage Almassira, CR dar CHAFAAI, Cercle d’ELBROUGE, Province de Settat [Study on fish farming at the Al Massira dam, CR dar CHAFAI, Cercle d’ELBROUGE, Province of Settat].

Ilunga, A. K., Mamba, B. B., & Nkambule, T. T. (2021). Catalytic hydrodehalogenation of halogenated disinfection byproducts for clean drinking water production: A review. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 44, 102402. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwpe.2021.102402

Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Meeting, & World Health Organization. (2013). Evaluation of Certain Food Additives and Contaminants: Seventy-Seventh Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (Vol. 77). World Health Organization.

Kabamba, M., Basosila, N., Mulaji, C,. Mata, H., & Tuakuila J. (2016). Toxic Heavy Metals in Ambient Air of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic Congo. Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 3(2), 3-6.

Karaouzas, I., Lambropoulou, D. A., Skoulikidis, N. T., & Albanis, T. A. (2011). Levels, sources and spatiotemporal variation of nutrients and micropollutants in small streams of a Mediterranean River basin. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 13(11), 3064-3074. https://doi.org/10.1039/C1EM10637F

Kasuku, W., Bouland, C., De Brouwer, C., Mareschal, B., & Mulaji, C. (2016). Réflexion en faveur d’une gestion durable des déchets hospitaliers à Kinshasa [Reflection in favor of sustainable management of hospital waste in Kinshasa]. Revue de l'infirmière, 65, 41-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revinf.2016.08.032

Kinkela, P. M., Mutiaka, B. K., Dogot, T., Dochain, D., Rollin, X., Mvubu, R. N., Kinkela, C., Mafwila, J., & Bindelle. (2017). Diversity of farming systems integratingfish pond aquaculture inthe province of Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics, 11(1), 149-160.

Kifuani, K. M., Mayeko, A. K. K., Vesituluta, P. N., Lopaka, B. I., Bakambo, G. E., Mavinga, B. M., & Lunguya, J. M. (2018). Adsorption d’un colorant basique, Bleu de Méthylène, en solution aqueuse, sur un bioadsorbant issu de déchets agricoles de Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin [Adsorption of a basic dye, Methylene Blue, in aqueous solution, on a bioadsorbent from agricultural waste of Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin]. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 12(1), 558-575. https://doi.org/10.4314/ijbcs.v12i1.43

Konunga, G., Muyaya, B., & Muamba, P. (2018). Assessment of the degradation of some physicochemical water parameters of the Lukaya River in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Afrique Science, 14(2), 292-303.

Kumar, V., Parihar, R. D., Sharma, A., Bakshi, P., Sidhu, G. P. S., Bali, A. S., Karaouzas, I., Bhardwaj, R., Thukral, A. K., Gyasi-Agyei, Y., & Rodrigo-Comino, J. (2019). Global evaluation of heavy metal content in surface water bodies: A meta-analysis using heavy metal pollution indices and multivariate statistical analyses. Chemosphere, 236, 124364. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.124364

Kusonika, A. N., Musibono, D. E., Tangou, T. T., Gizanga, R. V., Nsimanda, C. I., & Nkoba, H. T. (2016). Cartographie numérique des zones à risque chimique de l'environnement de Kinshasa [Digital mapping of chemical risk zones in Kinshasa's environment]. International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies, 15(3), 565-572.

Levallois, P., & Phaneuf, D. (1992). Risques associés à la contamination de l’eau potable par les nitrates [Risks associated with contamination of drinking water by nitrates]. Bulletin d’information en santé environnementale, 3(3), 1-3.

Lu, X., Wang, L., Li, L. Y., Lei, K., Huang, L., & Kang, D. (2010). Multivariate statistical analysis of heavy metals in street dust of Baoji, NW China. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 173(1-3), 744-749. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.09.001

Luboya, J-D. K. M. (2002). Etude systémique du bassin versant de la rivière N'djili à Kinshasa [Systemic study of the N'djili river watershed in Kinshasa]. [Undergraduate Thesis, Ecole Régionale Post-Universitaire d'Aménagements et de gestion Intégrés des Forêts et Territoires Tropicaux]. ERAIFT.

Lumbuenamo, S., Ngomba, N., & Milau, E. (2010). Lead pollution of the N'djili River. Annales de La Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques de l'Université de Kinshasa (UNIKIN), 5(3), 37-48.

Mahato, P., Saha, S., Das, P., Agarwalla, H., & Das, A. (2014). An overview of the recent developments on Hg 2+ recognition. RSC Advances, 4(68), 36140-36174. https://doi.org/10.1039/C4RA03594A

Mindele, L. U. (2016). Characterization and testing of anaerobic and composting treatment of household waste and faecal sludge for the city of Kinshasa. [Doctoral Dissertation, Université de Liège]. ORBi.

Mohan, S. V., Nithila, P., & Reddy, S. J. (1996). Estimation of heavy metals in drinking water and development of heavy metal pollution index. Journal of Environmental Science & Health Part A, 31(2), 283-289. https://doi.org/10.1080/10934529609376357

Muzingu, N. (2010). Les sites maraîchers coopérativisés de Kinshasa en RD Congo : contraintes environnementales et stratégies des acteurs [The cooperative market gardening sites of Kinshasa in DR Congo: environmental constraints and strategies of the actors]. [Doctoral Dissertation, Université Catholique de Louvain]. DIAL@UCLouvin.

Nitu, J. (2018). Pollution de la Riviere N;djili et RIVIERE N'DJILI ET Contraintes de Gestion des Sols Autour du Pool Malebu(cas du Site Agricole Masina Rail 1/Kinshasa) [Pollution of the N'djili river and soil constraints around the malebo pool (case of the masina rail 1/kinshasa agricultural site)]. [Thesis, University of Liege]. Matheo: Master Thesis Online, University of Liege.

Nsiala, K. C. (2012). Contribution to the study of geochemical waters river watershed N'djii east of Kinshasa, DR Congo. [Doctoral Dissertation, University of Kinshasa/University of Bruxelles, Kinshasa].

Nsimanda, I. C., Musibono, E. D., Basosila, L. N., & Wanga, B. B. (2015). Etude préliminaire de la contamination au Cadmium et au Plomb de Distichodus fasciolatus, Mormyrops anguilloides et Schilbe mistus au Pool Malebo (Fleuve Congo-Kinshasa/RD Congo) à Kinsuka [Preliminary study on the fish contamination with the lead and cadmium from the Malebo Pool (Congo River, Kinshasa, DR Congo): Distichodus fasciolatus, Mormyrops anguilloides and Schilbe mistus (pisces)]. International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies, 10(1), 176-183.

Nzomba, D. (2023). Hydrogeochemistry and contamination of groundwater in the urban part of the N'djili watershed in Kinshasa. Afrique Science, 22(4), 30-46.

Panigrahy, B. P., Singh, P. K., Tiwari, A. K., Kumar, B., & Kumar, A. (2015). Assessment of heavy metal pollution index for groundwater around Jharia coalfield region, India. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences, 6(3), 33-39.

Prasad, B., & Bose, J. (2001). Evaluation of the heavy metal pollution index for surface and spring water near a limestone mining area of the lower Himalayas. Environmental Geology, 41(1), 183-188. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002540100380

Prasad, B., Kumari, P., Bano, S., & Kumari, S. (2014). Ground water quality evaluation near mining area and development of heavy metal pollution index. Applied Water Science, 4(1), 11-17. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-013-0126-x

Rodier, J., Legube, B., & Merlet, N. (2016). L'analyse de l'eau-10e éd [Water analysis - 10th ed]. Dunod.

Saeedi, M., Li, L. Y., & Salmanzadeh, M. (2012). Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: pollution and ecological risk assessment in street dust of Tehran. Journal of hazardous materials, 227, 9-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.04.047

Shen, F., Mao, L., Sun, R., Du, J., Tan, Z., & Ding, M. (2019). Contamination evaluation and source identification of heavy metals in the sediments from the Lishui River Watershed, Southern China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(3), 336. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030336

Singh, G., & Kamal, R. K. (2017). Heavy metal contamination and its indexing approach for groundwater of Goa mining region, India. Applied Water Science, 7, 1479-1485. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-016-0430-3

Sirajudeen, J., Arulmanikandan, S., & Manivel, V. (2015). Heavy metal pollution index of groundwater of Fathima Nagar area near Uyyakondan channel Tiruchirappalli district, Tamil Nadu, India. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (WJPPS), 4(1), 967-975.

Tamasi, G., & Cini, R. (2004). Heavy metals in drinking waters from Mount Amiata (Tuscany, Italy). Possible risks from arsenic for public health in the Province of Siena. Science of The Total Environment, 327(1-3), 41-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2003.10.011

Tiwari, A. K., De Maio, M., Singh, P. K., & Mahato, M. K. (2015). Evaluation of surface water quality by using GIS and a heavy metal pollution index (HPI) model in a coal mining area, India. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 95, 304-310. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-015-1558-9

Unite Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP). (2011). Water Issues in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Challenges and Opportunities. Technical Report. UNEP.

Vernoux, J. F., Lions, J., Petelet-Giraud, E., Seguin, J. J., & Stollsteiner, P. (2010). Contribution à la caractérisation des relations entre eau souterraine, eau de surface et écosystèmes terrestres associés en lien avec la DCE [Contribution to the characterization of the relationships between groundwater, surface water and associated terrestrial ecosystems in relation to the WFD]. Final Report BRGM/RP-57044-FR.

Vualu, P. (2020). Geochemical and geoenvironmental characterization approaches for a mining project in the context of naturally elevated and/or anthropized geochemical background: application to the Siscoe-Sullivan-Marban mining sectors, Val-d'or, Canada. [Doctoral Dissertation, Université de Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue (UQAT). Quebec City, Canada.

WHO. (2013). Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater. Excreta and greywater in agriculture, 4.

WHO. (2017). Quality guidelines for drinking water. WHO. Geneva.

Yari, A.R., & Sobhanardakani, S. (2016). Water Quality Assessment of Ground water Resources in Qaleeh Shahin Plain Based on Cd and HEI. International Archives of Health Sciences, 3, 101-106.

Yuan, J., Xu, F., Deng, G., Tang, Y., & Li, P. (2017). Hydrogeochemistry of shallow groundwater in a karst aquifer system of Bijie City, Guizhou Province. Water, 9(8), 625. https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080625

Downloads

Published

2024-05-08

How to Cite

Nzomba, D. N. wa. (2024). Heavy Metal Pollution Status in The Main Surface Waters of The N’djili River Basin in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: A Review with Application and Evaluation of Pollution Indices Evaluation. Indonesian Journal of Earth Sciences, 4(1), A965. https://doi.org/10.52562/injoes.2024.965